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Body fat percentages in various animals
Topic Started: Feb 12 2016, 01:34 AM (7,834 Views)
Spartan
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Kleptoparasite
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I couldn't find a similar topic and I think this could be of interest for some. I'd like to make a list containing body fat percentages (and maybe things like muscle mass percentage, average stomach content or body composition in general) of various animal species. Especially when comparing animals, for example in the interspecific fight section, weight alone can sometimes be deceiving.
I'd appreciate every contribution, particularly on larger animals.


Mammalia (Mammals)

Primates:

Gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla): roughly 20% (captive), 7-8% (male in prime), 46% muscle mass, 39.6% muscle mass5
http://carnivoraforum.com/single/?p=8696119&t=10152155
Body mass in lowland gorillas: a quantitative analysis: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10954620


Bonobos (Pan paniscus): 1.2 - 8.6% for females, 0.01% for males, 45.8% muscle5
http://johnhawks.net/weblog/reviews/bonobos/zihlman-bolter-bonobo-body-fat-2015.html

Toque macaques (Macaca sinica) : 2.1%
Arboreal adaptations of body fat in wild toque macaques (Macaca sinica) and the evolution of adiposity in primates Wolfgang P. J. Dittus: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ajpa.22351/abstract;jsessionid=450A42AEE0B723093C2C9AD06A18EE5C.f03t03

Orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus): 15-20%, 16.9% in adults
Functional Anatomy and Adaptation of Male Gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) With Comparison to Male Orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus): http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ar.21449/full
Metabolic adaptation for low energy throughput in orangutans: http://www.pnas.org/content/107/32/14048.short

Common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus): 4.4%*, 47.3% muscle mass5

Human (Homo sapiens): 13.5±4.2% in males and 20.9±4.6% in females (hunter-gatherer), 22.5±5.0% in males and 37.9±7.0% (western). Essential fat: 3-5% in males, 8-12% in females
Hunter-Gatherer Energetics and Human Obesity:http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0040503

Muscle mass percentage of some primate species:

Black howler (Alouatta caraya): 27.6%5

Three-striped night monkey (Aotus trivirgatus): 30.7%5

Spider monkeys (Ateles): 45.8%5

Common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus): 47.3%5

Gracile capuchin monkeys (Cebus): 45.8%5

Brown greater galago (Otolemur crassicaudatus): 38%5

Mohol bushbaby (Galago moholi): 33.4%5

Senegal bushbaby (Galago senegalensis): 36.7%5

Gorilla (Gorilla gorilla): 39.6%5

Eastern lesser bamboo lemur (Hapalemur griseus): 24.2%5

Red slender loris (Loris tardigradus): 27.8%5

Rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta): 41.3%5, 11.6-18.5% bone, 10.2-20.6% skin10

Southern pig-tailed macaque (Macaca nemestrina): 49.1%5, 14.1% bone, 11.1% skin10

Celebes crested macaque (Macaca nigra): 36.8%5, 15.4% skin9

Drill (Mandrillus leucophaeus): 44.2%5, 17.5% bone, 13.1% skin10

Gray mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus): 28.6%5

Coquerel's giant mouse lemur (Mirza coquereli): 25.5%5

Sunda slow loris (Nycticebus coucang): 25.8%5

Pygmy slow loris (Nycticebus pygmaeus): 26%5

Bonobo (Pan Paniscus): 45.8%5

Common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes): 35%5

Potto (Perodicticus potto): 21.6%5

Philippine tarsier (Carlito syrichta): 21.7%5

Human (Homo sapiens): 56.5 - 65.1% in male athletes, 40% average male, 14% bone
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/14747893_Muscle_mass_of_competitive_male_athletes
http://i515.photobucket.com/albums/t359/Ursus_arctos_middendorffi/Body%20composition/Muledeerandelk.png



Carnivora:

Walrus (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus): 19% in females, 15% in males, 44% muscle mass
Body growth in Atlantic walruses (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus) from Greenland:http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1469-7998.1994.tb04854.x/abstract

Antarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus gazella): Females during parturition: 22%**

Elephant seals (Mirounga): Females during parturition: 40%**, Males at beginning of breeding season: up to 50%
http://www.ports.parks.ca.gov/pages/735/files/pre_seal_activ_adapt-cards.pdf

Southern elephant seal (Mirounga leonina): 28% muscle mass13

Stoat (Mustela erminea): 1.53%*, 57.1% muscle mass9

Wolverine (Gulo gulo): 6.0%*, 56.3% muscle mass9

Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis): 14.6%*

Raccoon (Procyon lotor): 16.8%*, 48.8% muscle mass9

American mink (Neovison vison): 6.1%*, 56.4% muscle mass9

Bobcat (Lynx rufus): 11.8%*, 58.5% muscle mass9

Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx): 56.5% muscle mass9

Crabeater seal (Lobodon carcinophaga): 21-22%, 44% muscle mass
Body size and composition of Crabeater seals (Lobodon carcinophagus), with observations on tissue and organ size in Ross seals (Ommatophoca rossi): http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1469-7998.1976.tb02293.x/abstract

Ross seal (Ommatophoca rossii): 21-22%Body size and composition of Crabeater seals (Lobodon carcinophagus), with observations on tissue and organ size in Ross seals (Ommatophoca rossi):
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1469-7998.1976.tb02293.x/abstract


African lion (Panthera leo): 13% on average, 3-21% range
http://shaggygod.proboards.com/thread/1084/interesting-facts-big-cats?page=1

North American brown bear (Ursus arctos horribilis): Males: 22% in july, 28% in september, Females: 29.8% before hibernating, 15.1% after hibernating, 19-37% from spring to fall3
Schwartz et al. (2014) http://images.yuku.com.s3.amazonaws.com/image/pjpeg/f3c16016728fd0cf0005ea22eeebd82e8bf8a790.pjpg

European badger (Meles meles): 15.9% (range: 10-20.5%)2

Jaguar (Panthera onca): 15% (captive individual)2

Tiger (Panthera tigris): 10% (captive individual)2

Wolf (Canis lupus), Alaska: Spring: Males: 13.7±4.4%, Females: 15.5±2.3%, Summer: Males: 4.0±1.5%, Females: 3.3±1.6%, Autumn: Males: 6.5±1.7%, Females: 8.1±1.9%
Interestingly the weight didn't really change between Spring and Summer despite the decrease in fat mass. They lost ca. 5kg fat while gaining 5kg muscle mass.
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/263270237_Body_composition_of_free-ranging_wolves_Canis_lupus

Bearded seal (Erignathus barbatus): 30-40%
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bearded_seal#Description

Black bear (Ursus americanus): Females: 21-41%, males: 26-30% from spring to fall
http://i515.photobucket.com/albums/t359/Ursus_arctos_middendorffi/Highfruitdietbearbodyfatpercentages.png

Harp seal (Pagophilus groenlandicus): 37.9%4, 26% muscle mass13

Sea otter (Enhydra lutris): 1.8%4, 33% muscle mass13

Weddell seal (Leptonychotes weddellii): 30-40%, 35% muscle mass13
http://mammothcrew.weebly.com/meet-the-animals.html

Polar bear (Ursus maritimus): Pregnant females: 40%, females with offspring: 30.6%, Males: 30% (24-37%)
Ecophysiological studies of body composition, body size and reproduction in polar bears: https://ecommons.usask.ca/bitstream/handle/10388/etd-10202004-235652/nq24050.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

California sea lion (Zalophus californianus): 37% muscle mass13

Hooded seal (Cystophora cristata): 28% muscle mass13

Ringed seal (Pusa hispida): 30% muscle mass13

Baikal seal (Pusa sibirica): 30% muscle mass13

Greyhound: 2-7%
http://articles.extension.org/pages/32976/body-condition-scoring-your-dog
http://www.greysave.org/about-the-breed.html

Muscle mass percentage of some carnivoran species:

Cat (probably Felis silvestris catus): 44.9% - 49.9%7, 11.9- 14.8% bone10

Dog (Canis familiaris): 42.6%-57.6%7, 14.1-15% bone, 4.4-6.5% skin10

Lion (Panthera leo): 58.8%7, 62%
Davis, D. D. 1962. Allometric relationships in lions vs. domestic cats.



Artiodactyla (even-toed ungulates without cetaceans)

Hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius) 0.8 - 4.2%8, 20-25% of its weight is gut content
Pienaar et al., 1966

Elk (Alces alces): 6.5% for males (range: 1.4 - 15.9%), 11.5% for females (0.3 - 19.4%), 44% muscle mass, 11% bone
Estimation of Body Composition in Moose Kris J. Hundertmark: https://www.adfg.alaska.gov/static/home/library/pdfs/wildlife/research_pdfs/1.42_97.pdf
http://i515.photobucket.com/albums/t359/Ursus_arctos_middendorffi/Body%20composition/Muledeerandelk.png

Caribou (Rangifer tarandus): Cows: 11-14%, bulls: 31%
The Wolves of Denali by L. David Mech: https://books.google.de/books?id=-IZBwMrNWnMC&pg=PA136&lpg=PA136&dq=body+fat+percentage+wolves&source=bl&ots=JFZbqWdoHM&sig=omCKK8AInBSy4qG26OACmNRXU_A&hl=de&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiz6rmh9PDKAhUI2SwKHQQxAJgQ6AEIJzAB#v=onepage&q=body%20fat%20percentage%20wolves&f=false

Zebu (Bos primigenius indicus): 22.4±5.07% (range:8.4-31.4%)
International Livestock Centre for Africa Bulletin: No. 30 by ILCA, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia): https://books.google.de/books?id=qhtTh-2WmjYC&pg=PA9&dq=%22body+fat+percentage%22+%22animals%22&hl=de&sa=X&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=%22body%20fat%20percentage%22%20%22animals%22&f=false

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus): 10±5% (range: 2-18%), 25% in males in years with good precipitation
Plant-animal subsistence ratios and macronutrient energy estimations in worldwide hunter-gatherer diets Loren Cordain: http://www.direct-ms.org/sites/default/files/E10965-Cordain.pdf
White-Tailed Deer Buck Breeding Strategies: Role of Fat Reserves: http://www.sedsg.com/abstract.asp?id=1265

Mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus): 47% muscle mass, 10% bone
http://i515.photobucket.com/albums/t359/Ursus_arctos_middendorffi/Body%20composition/Muledeerandelk.png

Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus): Pregnant, captive female: 6.1%
The Fats of Life by Caroline M. Pond: https://books.google.de/books?id=Usto_MdMXYMC&pg=PA42&lpg=PA42&dq=%22the+organisation+of+adipose+tissue+in+some+large+zoo-bred%22&source=bl&ots=LL1z8kDg2H&sig=tNzEGch6F5EdOg_-c1XpCpBUoGM&hl=de&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiB9dOaufPKAhVEMhoKHUAODMYQ6AEIJDAA#v=onepage&q=%22the%20organisation%20of%20adipose%20tissue%20in%20some%20large%20zoo-bred%22&f=false

Waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus): 0.2 - 3.4%8

East African oryx (Oryx beisa): 1.2 - 7.4% 8

Lesser kudu (Tragelaphus imberbis): 0.6 - 3.8%8

Blue wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus): 0.8 - 6.4%8

Desert warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus): 0.3 - 1.5%8

Thomson's gazelle (Eudorcas thomsonii): 0.5 - 4.7%8

Ugandan Kob (Kobus kob thomasi): 1.3 - 4.8%8

Impala (Aepyceros melampus): 0.5 - 4.7%8

Topis (Damaliscus lunatus jimela): 0.8 - 3.5%8

Yucatan swine (Sus scrofa domestica): 16.7±1.4% in males
Noninvasive Measures of Body Fat Percentage in Male Yucatan Swine Carol A. Witczak http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/aalas/cm/2005/00000055/00000005/art00006?crawler=true

Sable antelope (Hippotragus niger): 48% muscle mass9

Kirk's dik-dik (Madoqua kirkii): 45% muscle mass9



Muscle mass percentage of some Artiodactyla species:

Pig: 40.7%7


Perissodactyls (odd-toed ungulates):

Horse (Equus ferus caballus): 8-14% in lean horses, two captive individuals with 5.2% and 4.0%
http://www.thehorse.com/articles/24740/determining-horses-body-weight-and-ideal-condition The Fats of Lifeby Caroline M. Pond: https://books.google.de/books?id=Usto_MdMXYMC&pg=PA42&lpg=PA42&dq=%22the+organisation+of+adipose+tissue+in+some+large+zoo-bred%22&source=bl&ots=LL1z8kDg2H&sig=tNzEGch6F5EdOg_-c1XpCpBUoGM&hl=de&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiB9dOaufPKAhVEMhoKHUAODMYQ6AEIJDAA#v=onepage&q=%22the%20organisation%20of%20adipose%20tissue%20in%20some%20large%20zoo-bred%22&f=false


Lagomorpha (hares, rabbits and pikas):

Collared pika (Ochotona collaris): 5.8%*, 47.3% muscle mass9


Muscle mass percentage of some Lagomorpha species:

Rabbit: 34.2% - 54.4%7

Black-tailed jackrabbit (Lepus californicus): 47.9% muscle mass, 12.3% bone, 7.5% skin10


Rodentia:

Groundhog (Marmota monax): 35.8% (Alaska)*, 5.4% (Virginia)*, 37.2% muscle mass9

Hoary marmot (Marmota caligata): 17.5%*, 47% muscle mass9

Long-tailed ground squirrel (Urocitellus undulatus): 4.35%*, 53.8% muscle mass9

American red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus): 1.97%*, 59.2% muscle mass9

North American beaver (Castor canadensis): 11.4%*, 49.5% muscle mass9

North American brown lemming (Lemmus trimucronatus): 1.86%*, 47.9% muscle mass9

Northern red-backed vole (Myodes rutilus): 2.9%*, 44.9% muscle mass9

Tundra vole (Microtus oeconomus): 2.08%*, 44.8% muscle mass9

Muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus): 1.1% (Alaska)*, 7.35% (Virginia)*, 57.6% muscle mass9

North American porcupine (Erethizon dorsatum): 11%*, 41.2% muscle mass9

Eastern gray squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis): 2.2%*, 61.4% muscle mass9

White-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus): 3.41%*, 47.2% muscle mass9

Marsh rice rat (Oryzomys palustris): 12.8%*, 43.7% muscle mass9

Gapper's red-backed vole (Myodes gapperi): 0.8%*, 50.4% muscle mass9

Meadow vole (Microtus pennsylvanicus): 3.76%*, 46.1% muscle mass9

Woodland vole (Microtus pinetorum): 2.36%*, 48.7% muscle mass9

House mouse (Mus musculus): 5.55%*, 44.5% muscle mass9

Lowland paca (Cuniculus paca): 12.55%*, 47.1% muscle mass9

Degu (Octodon degus): 20.86±3.97%
What explains the trot–gallop transition in small mammals?
José Iriarte-Díaz
http://jeb.biologists.org/content/209/20/4061


Red-rumped agouti (Dasyprocta leporina): 12.32%*, 53.2% muscle mass9

Muscle mass percentage of some rodent species:

Guinea pig (Cavia porcellus): 45.8%7

Mouse: 34.2 - 43.4%7

Shrew: 39.9%7

Rat: 41.8% - 45.5%7



Talpidae (moles):

Common mole (Scalopus aquaticus): 2.8%*, 49% muscle mass9


Marsupials:

Large American opposums (Didelphis spp.): 10.29%*, 46.5% muscle mass9

Common opossum (Didelphis marsupialis): 8.0%*, 48.3% muscle mass9

Bare-tailed woolly opossum (Caluromys philander): 32.6% muscle mass9

Matschie's tree-kangaroo (Dendrolagus matschiei): 34% muscle mass9

Bennett's wallaby (Macropus rufogriseus): 50% muscle mass9

Red kangaroo (Macropus rufus): 47% muscle mass9

Linnaeus's mouse opossum (Marmosa murina): 29.1% muscle mass 9

Brown four-eyed opossum (Metachirus nudicaudatus): 45.8% muscle mass9

Northern red-sided opossum (Monodelphis brevicaudata): 39.7% muscle mass9

Koala (Phascolarctos cinereus): 30.4% muscle mass9

Gray four-eyed opossum (Philander opossum): 38.8% muscle mass9

Long-nosed potoroo (Potorous tridactylus): 44% muscle mass9

Common ringtail possum (Pseudocheirus peregrinus): 32% muscle mass9




Chiroptera (bats):

Mexican fruit bat (Artibeus jamaicensis): 9.13%*, 44.5% muscle mass9

Great fruit-eating bat (Artibeus lituratus): 9.56%*, 45.6% muscle mass9

Pallas's long-tongued bat (Glossophaga soricina): 3.57%*, 53.5%

Pale spear-nosed bat (Phyllostomus discolor): 6.6%*, 48% muscle mass9

Greater spear-nosed bat (Phyllostomus hastatus): 5.8%*, 50.1% muscle mass9

Little yellow-shouldered bat (Sturnira lilium): 7.4%*, 41.1% muscle mass9

White-lined broad-nosed bat (Platyrrhinus lineatus): 7%*, 48.1% muscle mass9

Big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus): 41.6% muscle mass9

Molossus major: 49.8% muscle mass9




Xenarthra (sloths, armadillos and anteaters):

Six-banded armadillo (Euphractus sexcinctus): 9.66%*, 35.1% muscle mass9

Brown-throated sloth (Bradypus variegatus): 23.6% muscle mass9

Hoffmann's two-toed sloth (Choloepus hoffmanni): 26.8% muscle mass9




Cetacea (whales and dolphins):

Blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus):21-35%, 39-46.3% muscle mass,
35%*, 21% for a 122t 27m individual (46,3% muscle mass), 15-18% skeleton, 27% blubber, 39% muscle14
https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Walfang#Gejagte_Wale
Size, Function, and Life History by William A. Calder: http://fs5.directupload.net/images/160614/oxmlxfge.jpg

Sei whale (Balaenoptera borealis): 18%, 12% bone14, 58% muscle mass13

Fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus): 24%, 17% bone14, 45% muscle mass13

Bryde's whale (Balaenoptera brydei): 23%, 15% bone14, 46% muscle mass13

Minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata): 15%, 14% bone14, 62% muscle mass13

Beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas): 40-50%
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beluga_whale#Size

Right whales (Eubalaena): 40%
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Right_whale#Description

Pacific right whale (Eubalaena glacialis siboldi): 43%, 13% bone14, 31% muscle mass13

Bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops): 18-20%, 36% muscle mass13
https://seaworld.org/en/animal-info/animal-infobooks/bottlenose-dolphins/adaptations

Harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena): 37% in calves, lower in adults
HABITAT PREFERENCES OF SYMPATRIC COASTAL CETACEANS AT CONTRASTING SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL SCALES: HABITAT PARTITIONING OF BOTTLENOSE DOLPHINS ( TURSIOPS TRUNCATUS ), HARBOUR PORPOISES ( PHOCOENA PHOCOENA ), AND MINKE WHALES ( BALAENOPTERA ACUTOROSTRATA ) IN THE OUTER SOUTHERN MORAY FIRTH, NORTH-EAST SCOTLAND Thomas S Bean http://www.crru.org.uk/cust_images/pdfs/bean_thesis.pdf

Sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus): 25 - 33%, 10% bone14, 34% muscle mass13
http://www.whalemuseum.is/whaling-in-iceland/history-of-whaling/
http://www.schmidt-fluke.de/biologie.html

La Plata dolphin (Pontoporia blainvillei): 24.30 ± 1.87%
Body Fat Condition in Franciscanas (Pontoporia blainvillei) in Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil Glauco Caon http://jmammal.oxfordjournals.org/content/88/5/1335

Narwhal (Monodon monoceros): 33%
http://usa.oceana.org/blog/marine-monday-narwhal

Humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae): 30%, 30% muscle mass13
Toxicology of Marine Mammals published by Joseph G. Vos https://books.google.de/books?id=ToMuyu-t_oYC&pg=PA250&lpg=PA250&dq=%22of+their+body+weight+is+blubber%22&source=bl&ots=Av2h2t2ROo&sig=bI0lfv_paswxcM8ejOhP88GYMX0&hl=de&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjWgvDJlPjKAhWiQZoKHcr7AXgQ6AEILzAC#v=onepage&q=%22of%20their%20body%20weight%20is%20blubber%22&f=false

Fraser's dolphin (Lagenodelphis hosei): 56-59% muscle mass15

Spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris): 52% muscle mass15

Pygmy killer whale (Feresa attenuata): 44% muscle mass (in immature individuals)15



Sirenia (sea cows):

West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus): 40% muscle mass13



Proboscidea (only elephants extant):

Muscle mass percentage of some Proboscidea species:

African elephant (Loxodonta africana): Males: at least 39.1%7, weight of gastrointestinal tract content: 10-17%, 27% skeleton
https://www.researchgate.net/c/o2gjmc/javascript/lib/pdfjs/web/viewer.html?file=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.researchgate.net%2Fprofile%2FMarcus_Clauss2%2Fpublication%2F227147241_Testing_predictions_on_body_mass_and_gut_contents_dissection_of_an_African_elephant_Loxodonta_Africana_Blumenbach_1797%2Flinks%2F553085540cf27acb0de86f62.pdf%3FinViewer%3D1%26pdfJsDownload%3D1%26origin%3Dpublication_detail#lCR13
Size, Function, and Life History by William A. Calder: http://fs5.directupload.net/images/160614/oxmlxfge.jpg




Scandentia (Treeshrews):

Common treeshrew (Tupaia glis): 32.9% muscle mass9




Osteichthyes (bony fish without tetrapods):

Skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis): 68% muscle mass
Size, Function, and Life History by William A. Calder http://i277.photobucket.com/albums/kk45/brentlion_2008/brentonlion/books-90.png

Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): 55-67% muscle mass
Size, Function, and Life History by William A. Calder http://i277.photobucket.com/albums/kk45/brentlion_2008/brentonlion/books-90.png



Chondrichthyes (cartilaginous fishes)

Selachii (sharks):

Great white shark (Carcharodon carcharias): Fatty liver weighs 15-25% of bodyweight, up to 35%
http://www.elasmo-research.org/education/white_shark/digestion.htm


Sauropsida

Aves (birds):

European herring gull (Larus argentatus): 7-9%***

Great skua (Stercorarius skua): 0-7%***

Northern gannet (Morus bassanus): 6-7%***

Northern fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis): 2-15%***

Ruby-throated hummingbird (Archilochus colubris): 21%, 42% when migrating
Adipose energy stores, physical work, and the metabolic syndrome: lessons from hummingbirds James L Hargrove http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1325055/

Common Buzzard (Buteo buteo vulpinus): 4% (when migrating)1

Pacific golden plover (Pluvialis fulva): 32% (when migrating)1

American kestrel (Falco sparverius): 6-9% (when migrating)1

Sharp-shinned hawk (Accipiter striatus): 4-7% in fall, 5-10% in spring1

Cooper's hawk (Accipiter cooperii): 3 - 9.5% in fall, 4-10.6% in spring1

Merlin (Falco columbarius): 14-18% (when migrating)1

Tufted duck (Aythya fuligula): 25% muscle mass13

Black-legged kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla): 21% muscle mass13

Cassin's auklet (Ptychoramphus aleuticus): 26% muscle mass13

Ancient murrelet (Synthliboramphus antiquus): 25% muscle mass13

Rhinoceros auklet (Cerorhinca monocerata): 27% muscle mass13

Thick-billed murre (Uria lomvia): 29% muscle mass13

King penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus): 33% muscle mass pre-breeding, 37% pre-molt13

Emperor penguin (Aptenodytes forsteri): 38% muscle mass13




Serpentes (snakes):

Diamondback water snake (Nerodia rhombifer): 12.4±0.9% (range: 6.8 - 22.4%)
Non-invasive measure of body composition of snakes using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry Stephen M. Secor , Tim R. Nagy: http://bama.ua.edu/~ssecor/journalarticles/journalarticle32.pdf

Aesculapian snake (Zamenis longissimus): <4%, 53.8% muscle mass
Reproductive ecology, body fat reserves and foraging mode in females of two contrasted snake species: Vipera aspis (terrestrial, viviparous) and Elaphe longissima (semi-arboreal, oviparous) by Guy Naulleau and Xavier Bonnet http://booksandjournals.brillonline.com/content/journals/10.1163/156853895x00172?trendmd-shared=0

Asp viper (Viper aspis): Up to 10%, 16.62% in an extremely big female of 81cm length, 39.6% muscle mass
Reproductive ecology, body fat reserves and foraging mode in females of two contrasted snake species: Vipera aspis (terrestrial, viviparous) and Elaphe longissima (semi-arboreal, oviparous)
http://booksandjournals.brillonline.com/content/journals/10.1163/156853895x00172?trendmd-shared=0


Pythons (Pythoninae): 1,86 ± 2,70% (0 - 9.08%), 13% internal organs, 20,5% ± 4,8 skin12

Boas (Boinae): 4,54 ± 4,52% (0 - 12.33%) 13% internal organs, 17,4% ± 2,5 skin12

Colubrinae: 3,69 ± 3,77% (0 - 14.48%), 13% internal organs, 18,4% ± 3,0 skin12




Lacertilia (lizards):

Gray's monitor (Varanus olivaceus): 5-12% (lowest from june-august, highest in october), stomach content only accounts for 2% of body weight
A little book of monitor lizards by Daniel Bennett: http://library.mampam.com/LBML-blackandwhiteversion.pdf

Bengal monitor (Varanus bengalensis): 13.7%6

Perentie (Varanus giganteus): 10%6

Rosenberg's monitor (Varanus rosenbergi): 7.6%6

Yellow monitor (Varanus flavescens): 15%+ during winter, highest mean body fat of all monitor lizards
http://www.academia.edu/6776668/Varanoid_Lizards_of_the_World




Crocodilia:

Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus): 6.9±1.08% in juveniles (1.3m long, 33months old), 34.3±1.12% muscle in juveniles, individuals are from a commercial farm, so fat is probably lower in wild animals
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/230240513_Carcass_and_meat_characteristics_of_the_Nile_crocodile_Crocodylus_niloticus

Black caiman (Melanosuchus niger): 1.09%16

Broad-snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris): 4.39%16

Yacare caiman (Caiman yacare): 2.98%16

American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis): 1.22%16


cursive=exact species unknown

*Body Composition in Animals and Man by W. N. Garrett: https://books.google.de/books?id=SV8rAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA170&lpg=PA170&dq=Body+Composition+in+Animals+and+Man&source=bl&ots=we4HdsU9Pg&sig=l74nU9-g7uRFGe-yoYJHSQfRPhw&hl=de&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiDhqCMk-7KAhVBCpoKHTTbDjEQ6AEIIDAA#v=onepage&q=Body%20Composition%20in%20Animals%20and%20Man&f=false
**Marine Mammals: Evolutionary Biology by Annalisa Berta,James L. Sumich,Kit M. Kovacs: https://books.google.de/books?id=zcycBAAAQBAJ&pg=PA509&lpg=PA509&dq=body+fat+percentage+of+elephants&source=bl&ots=XAb4COrMzb&sig=VAnrdprpI-UekcvTxhZ4Z0K3II8&hl=de&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiV8qPllfDKAhXkAJoKHa0JA8w4FBDoAQgnMAE#v=onepage&q=body%20fat%20percentage%20of%20elephants&f=false
***THE BODY FATS OF SOME SEA-BIRDS BY JOHN ARNOLD LOVERN: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1264308/pdf/biochemj01030-0080.pdf
1FAT STORES OF MIGRANT SHARP-SHINNED AND COOPER'S HAWKS IN NEW MEXICO JOHN P. DELON: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/235772556_Fat_stores_of_migrant_Sharp-shinned_and_Cooper's_Hawks_in_New_Mexico
2 http://i515.photobucket.com/albums/t359/Ursus_arctos_middendorffi/Body%20fat%20info/Bodyfat.png
3 http://i515.photobucket.com/albums/t359/Ursus_arctos_middendorffi/Highfruitdietbearbodyfatpercentages.png
4CRC Handbook of Marine Mammal Medicine: Health, Disease, and Rehabilitation ... published by Leslie Dierauf,Frances M.D. Gulland https://books.google.de/books?id=FIIgDk9i_GkC&pg=PA964&lpg=PA964&dq=sea+otter+body+fat&source=bl&ots=ayeTVhk9xS&sig=dcTINkN1kz0eZlMHPZTptWyHLFs&hl=de&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjDuI3orfXKAhXiYpoKHRqKClcQ6AEIOTAG#v=onepage&q=sea%20otter%20body%20fat&f=false
5 http://i515.photobucket.com/albums/t359/Ursus_arctos_middendorffi/Primates.png
6Goannas: The Biology of Varanid Lizards By Dennis King, Brian Green https://books.google.de/books?id=TmcSxE3JSIwC&pg=PA86&dq=body+fat+in+varanids&hl=en&sa=X&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=body%20fat%20in%20varanids&f=false
7Mammalian Protein Metabolism, Band 3 published by H. N. Munro https://books.google.de/books?id=FDHLBAAAQBAJ&pg=PA154&lpg=PA154&dq=Davis,+1962+%22lion%22+%22muscle+mass%22&source=bl&ots=bkgoVJT2lx&sig=q5ltV7t3zzofn0gKXAskajksrt8&hl=de&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjrxq7A7ffKAhUiM5oKHavSDsEQ6AEIIzAA#v=onepage&q=Davis%2C%201962%20%22lion%22%20%22muscle%20mass%22&f=false
8APPRAISAL OF CONDITION ESTIMATION METHODS FOR EAST AFRICAN UNGULATES, Smith (1970)
9 http://i515.photobucket.com/albums/t359/Ursus_arctos_middendorffi/Body%20composition/nonprimates_zpsbe8470ab.png
10 http://i515.photobucket.com/albums/t359/Ursus_arctos_middendorffi/Body%20composition/Bodycomposition.png
11 /
12Untersuchungen zur Körperzusammensetzung von Schlangen https://edoc.ub.uni-muenchen.de/6587/1/Eberle_Annita.pdf page 66
13Diving Physiology of Marine Mammals and Seabirds by Paul J. Ponganis: https://books.google.de/books?id=vMzZCgAAQBAJ&printsec=frontcover&hl=de#v=onepage&q=sperm%20whale&f=false
14C. Lockyer, Body weight of some species of large whales: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/240590693_Body_weight_of_some_species_of_large_whales

15MYOGLOBIN IN PELAGIC SMALL CETACEANS: http://jeb.biologists.org/content/jexbio/202/3/227.full.pdf
16Carcass yield and proximate composition of black caiman (Melanosuchus niger) meat: http://www.academicjournals.org/journal/IJFA/article-full-text/4AA43F752325

Edited by Spartan, Jun 3 2017, 05:42 AM.
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Gyirin
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Canada lynx is the highest in cats listed here. Is it because they live in cold environment? Is Eurasian lynx similar?
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Spartan
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I sadly don't have data on Lynx lynx, but I'd assume so. The canadian lynx' body fat increases significantly between early and late winter when hares are abundant:

http://rcin.org.pl/Content/12343/BI002_2613_Cz-40-2_Acta-T40-nr16-181-196_o.pdf

Note that Groundhogs in Alaska are considerably fatter than in Virginia (for some reason Muskrats are fatter in virginia than in alaska, though).
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Wombatman
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Wow. Captive gorilla is fatter than a walrus. And bonobo practically lacks fat?
Arent humans around 6-10% or am I misinformed
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Spartan
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I chose to not include humans for the time since it depends so much on the population. Western males should be around 22% percent on average while hunter-gatherer males are around 13%.
6-10% would be very lean and even most bodybuilders only have such low body fat during competitions since it's not very comfortable for male humans to be under 10% body fat.
Women usually have higher body fat than males.

I added two seal species and the GWS.
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Thalassophoneus
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Belugas have around 40%-50% fat. That might be even higher than a right whale's fat percentage (around 40%).

....


I really wouldn't expect a rorqual to have more than 25% fat. They are quite deceptive.
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Spartan
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I added the beluga. Do you have a source for the right whale? I imagine due to the whaling era there must be a lot of data on whales, but I'm too incompetent to find it at the moment.

Edit: Will add some birds later.
Edited by Spartan, Feb 12 2016, 03:45 AM.
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Thalassophoneus
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Spartan
Feb 12 2016, 03:39 AM
I added the beluga. Do you have a source for the right whale? I imagine due to the whaling era there must be a lot of data on whales, but I'm too incompetent to find it at the moment.

Edit: Will add some birds later.
What else would my source be?

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Right_whale

Description.
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Warsaw2014
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Panthera leo



"...More specific body composition techniques exist and can further validate BCS scales in exotic animals,
however these techniques are challenging or expensive to apply. Beyond the data reported above, body
composition has not been assessed in lions, however it has been estimated from total body water from 14
wild lions in 2 studies (Clarke & Berry, 1992; Green et al., 1984). Average total body water was 64% and
did not differ between males and females or immature vs. mature lions (P>0.05). This corresponds to an
average fat mass of 13% bodyweight (range 3 to 21%)..."
http://shaggygod.proboards.com/thread/1084/interesting-facts-big-cats?page=1
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Spartan
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Thanks! So the 5% on average figure from this "source" is outdated?

http://en.allexperts.com/q/Interspecies-Conflict-3754/2009/10/Lion-Tiger-Body-fat.htm
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Warsaw2014
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Spartan
Feb 12 2016, 04:44 AM
Thanks! So the 5% on average figure from this "source" is outdated?

http://en.allexperts.com/q/Interspecies-Conflict-3754/2009/10/Lion-Tiger-Body-fat.htm
Your source seems enigmatically

"Answer
YEs i got it from a book, its an old book i have at the office, and its in portuguese."

Looks like BS to me.

And your expert...........

John Silva
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Expertise
Im a BIG CAT/CAT expert. If you have any questions about any Feline, your place is here. I would like to answer only about conflicts with Felines. Other questions are welcome but not my specialty. Predators in general are well known.
Experience
I know nearly all about predators such as siberian tigers, lions, wolves,... and other animals like giraffes, hippos, buffalos,... But what i really can go VERY DEEP into are the big cats.

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Spartan
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I added the lion. Anyone got data on bears?
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Canadianwildlife
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I wonder what the fat percentage is on say a golden eagle or some other raptor? Just popped into my mind. And what about reptiles. Snakes come to mind. Those would all be interesting finds.
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Spartan
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I added some birds of prey.

Does anyone know how to calculate body fat in elephants based on the Body condition scoring?

Edit: added horse, zebu and some whales


Edited by Spartan, Feb 13 2016, 09:46 AM.
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Spartan
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Added a few ungulates and a monitor lizard.
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