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Giant (Short-faced) Hyena - Pachycrocuta brevirostus
Topic Started: Jan 8 2012, 03:24 PM (9,528 Views)
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Giant (Short-faced) Hyena - Pachycrocuta brevirostus

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Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Family: Hyaenidae
Genus: †Pachycrocuta

Physical Description
Pachycrocuta brevirostris, stood about 100 cm (39 in) at the shoulder and may have weighed more than 113 kg (250 lb) — the size of a small lioness. This would make it the largest hyena to have ever lived. Weighing roughly 150 kg, Pacyhcrocuta was the largest hyaenid ever known. Because its muzzle was shorter than those in other hyenas, this species became commonly known as the 'short-faced hyena.'

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It lived between the Middle Pliocene and the Middle Pleistocene, about 3 million to 500.000 years ago.

Fossil remains have been found in many localities of Eurasia and southern and eastern Africa. Most material consists of fragmented remains, usually of the skull, but there has been a cache of very comprehensive bone material unearthed at the famous Zhoukoudian locallity which probably represents the remains of animals which used these caves as lairs for many millennia.

It probably was a small-pack hunter of large animals (up to deer size and occasionally larger) and also scavenged for food. Possibly it preferentially did the latter because was a very heavyset animal not built for chasing prey over long distances. In this aspect it would have differed from the Spotted Hyena of today, which is a more nimble animal that, contrary to its image as a scavenger, usually kills its own food but often gets displaced by lions. Apparently it was ecologically close enough to the smaller (but still large) relative Pliocrocuta perrieri; they are never found as contemporary fossils in the same region.

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Skeleton of an extinct short-faced hyaena (Pachycrocuta brevirostris)
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I should also provide something official as well than-

Title: Pachycrocuta brevirostris, short-faced hyena

A pack of short-faced hyena (Pachycrocuta brevirostris). This extinct mammal was widespread across Eurasia during the mid Pleistocene up until around 10,000 yrs ago. Illustration by Michael Long.

This species of hyena was as large as a modern day lion with jaws that could exert a force of about 800 kg per square inch. Like the modern day hyena Pachycroccuta brevirostris probably hunted and scavenged in packs.


Résumé / Abstract
The giant hyaena, Pachycrocuta brevirostris, is known from deposits in Africa and Eurasia between ca. 3.0 and 0.5 Ma. It is the largest of the true hyaenas, but that size is not reflected in overall shoulder height since the distal limb segments are relatively shorter than those of living taxa. Its bodily proportions therefore appear to be suited to power and strength rather than speed. Its eventual extinction is part of the overall evolution in large carnivore guilds throughout the world and may have been closely linked to the extinction of machairodont cats.


A well preserved cranium which represents the most complete skull of Pachycrocuta brevirostris (Carnivora, Hyaenidae) discovered in Africa, and a maxillary fragment from the Gladysvale Cave Deposit (John Nash Nature Reserve, Gauteng, South Africa) are described and compared to other fossil and extant hyaenid specimens from South Africa and Europe. In addition, some aspects of functional morphology in the hyaenid dentition are reconsidered and suggested to be directly related to the palaeoecological role of P. brevirostris.


Undiscovered Hyena
The Hyena is one of the most likely candidates for the Nandi Bear's true identity. Hyenas are best known as scavengers, but when they do hunt they are vicious animals and a force to be reckoned with. It is thought that the Nandi Bear could be a form of undiscovered giant hyena or even a prehistoric survivor. During the Pleistocene there lived in Africa a hyena that was roughly the size of a modern lion called the Short-faced Hyena. Unlike the hyenas of today, the Short-faced Hyena was a much more active hunter and thus would make it capable of the Nandi Bear's attacks. Another fact that makes it the most likely candidate is it too possessed a bear-like face. If the Short-faced Hyena survived into modern times it would fit the descriptions given by both Westerners and Africans of the Nandi Bear. However some researchers don't believe in the undiscovered hyena theory. Instead they suggest that people are just seeing normal hyenas committing savage acts. It is possible that this explains some reports by Westerners, but the natives know hyenas well and would recognize it no matter what it was doing. With that fact it would seem that the Nandi Bear being a misidentified hyena seen by natives would be an unlikely one; still the above case of the "brain eater" shows that such cases are indeed possible. Nevertheless, an unknown hyena remains the most likely candidate for the Nandi Bear.



This should be enough to get a general discription of the animal.

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Prehistoric giant hyena's bone-cracking habit

By Matt Walker
Editor, Earth News
Page last updated at 09:02 GMT, Friday, 4 March 2011

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Giant hyenas were true scavengers

Scientists have established how the largest bone-cracking carnivore to have ever lived went about its business.

The giant hyena, Pachycrocuta brevirostris, roamed Africa more than 2.5 million years ago.

Using new evidence uncovered from recently unearthed fossils, and a biomechanical analysis of the hyena's jaws, scientists have worked out what it ate and how.

The study also helps reveal how much the giant hyena hunted or scavenged.

Fossils of the giant hyena were first discovered several decades ago, at a range of sites.

"However, very little was known about its behaviour prior to our studies," Professor Paul Palmqvist told the BBC.

That was until his team unearthed a huge assemblage of Pleistocene fossils at Venta Micena in southeastern Spain.

These mammal remains rest in what is thought to be a den belonging to giant hyenas.

So far, 5,800 identifiable skeletal remains have been found, belonging to 225 animals from 21 types of mammal.

All the remains are thought to have been originally brought to the site by giant hyenas.

Professor Palmqvist's team have used a range of techniques to interpret this assemblage.

These include working out the frequency at which each species was scavenged by the giant hyenas, and which bones the carnivore preferred.

Horse, bison and deer species were a particular favourite of the hyena.

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The hyena may have followed other predators, such as sabretoothed cats

Results published in the journal Quaternary International showed that hyenas preferred to crack open bones high in marrow content, breaking into femur and tibia bones from the rear legs, and humerus bones from the front legs of prey.

Other bones were left relatively unscathed.

This preference helps show the giant hyena almost exclusively scavenged rather than preyed on live animals.

Cracking force

Pachycrocuta brevirostris is known as the giant short-faced scavenging hyena.

Fossil remains found at Venta Micena suggest it weighed approximately 110kg, making it significantly larger than modern hyenas and similar in size to a modern lioness.

It is the largest bone-crushing carnivore yet discovered, and had massive limbs, including short, powerful front legs that helped the hyena pick up and drag heavy carcasses.

It also had a heavy powerfully built jaw with robust, well developed teeth.

Analyses of the hyena's jaw also show it must have contained hugely strong muscles to crack large bones with, and was capable of resisting the great stresses that breaking such bones would create.

Thick and strong molar teeth did much of the crushing and cracking of bones.

"Our study has revealed that the force that this hyena was able to exert with its huge premolar teeth for fracturing bones was an order of magnitude higher than in living bone-crackers," says Professor Palmqvist, of the University of Teatinos, Malaga, Spain.

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Hyenas and early humans may have competed for food

However, there was a downside to the hyena's immense bone-cracking capability.

The structure of the creature's jaw meant it was not capable of using its longer, sharper canine teeth to bite down with much force.

That means the animal was actually a less effective predator than modern hyenas.

Instead it offset this loss of ability by being a more effective scavenger.

Hyena versus human

One mystery remains, however.

The giant short-faced hyena was a specialised scavenger, but its short, thick front legs, would not have made it a good runner.

That means it was unlikely to have roamed large distances on the look out for carrion.

Instead, the researchers believe it followed other large predators which lived at the same time, such as sabretoothed cats, and stole their kills, or used carrion-eating birds such as vultures to home in on carcasses.

In doing so, it may have jostled with early humans for its meals.

"We have studied this giant hyena using quite different approaches, and all point to an emerging picture of a colossal scavenger that may have represented a serious competitor with hominids for accessing carrion," Professor Palmqvist told the BBC.

The giant hyena in Europe died out around 800,000 years ago, when it was replaced by the spotted hyena, which today weighs just half as much as it giant forebear.

The decline of the giant hyena was probably linked to the decline and subsequent extinction of the sabretoothed cat.

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They would have serious competition
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